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Immutable JavaScript

April 17, 2017

What is immutability, how can it be achieved in JavaScript and why should you care?

Unchanging over time or unable to be changed.
-- Oxford Dictionaries

There is a rising trend in the JavaScript community to strive for immutability, and for a good reason. Functional programming (as opposed to e.g. object-oriented programming) is on the rise in an effort to create programs that are simpler and easier to reason about. While object-oriented programming embraces mutability through stateful objects, functional programming embraces immutability through stateless pure functions. Knowing that data can't be mutated after it's creation can remove a lot of cognitive load from a program.

The mutable JavaScript

One of the most common array operations is push - the operation that appends a new entry to an array. In the following example we declare an array of natural numbers and add 4 to it using Array.prototype.push:

const natural = [0, 1, 2, 3];

// => 5

You might be wondering why the expression natural.push(4) resulted in the value 5. Array.prototype.push is a stateful method that doesn't return a new array. Instead it modifies the original array in-place and returns the new length of the array.

Arrays in JavaScript are mutable and inspecting the original natural array reveals that it has in fact been mutated:

// => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]

In JavaScript the six primitive types - Boolean, Null, Number, String, Symbol and Undefined - are immutable. All other values (including arrays) derive from the Object type which is mutable.

When working with primitive types, it is impossible to change their values. Instead you create new values from them:

const alphabet = 'abcd';

// => "abcde"

// => "abcd"

As for objects, nothing is stopping you from overwriting their properties. In the following example a player object with damage and health is created. Afterwards the object is mutated using a property assignment statement:

const player = {
  damage: 50,
  health: 80,
}; = 70;

// => { damage: 50, health: 70 }

Achieving immutability

As it happens, it is possible to do any array operation in an immutable fashion using native JavaScript. In the case of appending an entry to an array, this can be obtained using my favorite ES2015 feature, the spread operator:

const odd = [1, 3, 5, 7];

[...odd, 9]
// => [1, 3, 5, 7, 9]

// => [1, 3, 5, 7]

The spread operator, when used inside an array literal, "spreads out" the odd array and copies its entries into the new array. Not only did this result in a smaller amount of code than using Array.prototype.push, it's arguably more expressive too.

What about decreasing the health of the player object?

It turns out, it's possible to "freeze" an object using Object.freeze. Below a player object is created and immediately frozen to protect it against mutation. The succeeding property assignment doesn't alter the object and amounts to nothing:

const player = {
  damage: 50,
  health: 80,

Object.freeze(player); = 70;

// => { damage: 50, health: 80 }

Normally you might not need the overhead of Object.freeze, but it's a handy function to pull in when writing unit tests for functions that should preserve immutability.

To decrease the health of the player in an immutable fashion, a new object has to be created. Here Object.assign can be of help. It allows us to copy the properties of player to a new object literal and afterwards overwriting the health property using yet another object literal with only that property:

const player = {
  damage: 50,
  health: 80,

Object.assign({}, player, { health: 70 });
// => { damage: 50, health: 70 }

// => { damage: 50, health: 80 }

The original object remains untouched!

Please note that Object.freeze doesn't deep freeze objects and Object.assign doesn't deep clone objects either. To achieve the same results with nested data structures various npm modules might be able to assist.


Unfortunately, preserving immutable data is not a simple task. A common gotcha is the fact that passing references to a function can cause unwanted side effects.

Consider the following function that returns the tail of an array:

function tail(arr) {
  return arr.splice(1);

const even = [2, 4, 6, 8];

// => [4, 6, 8]

As expected, the function returns the tail of even, but let's inspect the original array for good measure. It shouldn't have changed, right?

// => [2]

Because Array.prototype.splice is a stateful method, and because even is passed to tail by reference, the value of even has been modified!

It becomes apparent that tail can be referred to what is normally known as an impure function. It's concern should be to take an array as it's input and return the tail of that array. But as a bonus it has the side-effect of modifying the original array too.

Some (unfortunately crafted) stateful programs may rely on side-effects like this, but to maintain sanity it should be avoided. Writing tail as a pure function, the stateless Array.prototype.slice can be put to use:

function tailPure(arr) {
  return arr.slice(1);

const prime = [2, 3, 5, 7];

// => [3, 5, 7]

// => [2, 3, 5, 7]

Immutability is the backbone of functional programming, but even with new features of ES2015 it's not trivial to achieve in JavaScript. There are even many more pitfalls to be aware of than the ones described above. It is however valuable to learn about immutability. Implementing its principles even in non-functional codebases can lead to more declarative programs with less unwanted side-effects.

This website is authored by Christian. His full name is Christian Hamburger Grøngaard (that's right - Hamburger.)

Christian at Aurlandsfjellet
This is Christian on Aurlandsfjellet

Currently he works as a front-end developer at Escenic AS where he fights complexity in large applications for newsrooms. He's been developing for the Web on and off since the early 2000s, got a good eye for design and UX and used to pursue a more design-oriented career.

When Christian isn't glued to a screen he enjoys singing and playing the guitar, hiking and skiing as well as spending time with his family in the wonderful city of Oslo, Norway.

Christian's online presence includes a Flickr profile, a GitHub profile, a profile, a LinkedIn profile and a Twitter profile.

Copyright © 2019 Christian Hamburger Grøngaard{src}RSS

Other Writings

  1. Conversations in Code
  2. Git (and how we Commit)
  3. Immutable JavaScript
  4. Hashes and Salts
  5. Currying JavaScript 🍛
  6. Choosing Redux